What are the purposes of music education assessment? What are the best strategies and techniques? How does assessment improve music teaching and learning? What are the shared research priorities for music education assessment? To address these questions, 139 assessment scholars, researchers, music administrators, students, and practicing music educators representing six continents and 17 nations convened on the campus of the University of Bremen in Bremen, Germany. The 34 papers published in this volume address assessment in national, state, and regional contexts as well as in districts, schools and classrooms. A wealth of information about assessment in higher education and music teacher education is also included.